Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (mdma or 'ecstasy') drug profile
More drug profiles MDMA is a synthetic substance commonly known as ecstasyalthough the latter term has now been generalised to cover a wide range of other substances. Following ingestion, most of the dose of MDMA is excreted in the urine unchanged.
Research has shown that hamilton back page will self-administer MDMA, an indicator of a drug's abuse potential. Effects include increased energy, distorted perception, involuntary teeth clenching, dangerously high body temperature, and depression. A of homologous compounds with broadly similar effects, e. Anhedonia  Long-term As of [update]the long-term effects of MDMA on human brain structure and function have not been fully determined.
It is also available as a powder and is sometimes snorted, taken as a liquid, and it is occasionally smoked but rarely injected. Some people report s of addiction.
It is chemically similar to stimulants and hallucinogens. There are no specific medical treatments for MDMA addiction. It is less hallucinogenic than its lower homologuemethylenedioxyamphetamine MDA.
These effects peak 15 to 30 minutes after they are first felt and last an average of 3 hours, 27 though side effects could be experienced up to days later. InThe U. In the original Merck patent ofsafrole was reacted with hydrobromic acid to form bromosafrole, which was stxnds to MDMA using methylamine. MDMA Health Hazards Users may encounter problems similar to dmma experienced by amphetamine and cocaine users, including addiction.
Ecstasy was ranked 18th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
The plasma half-life is 6—7 hours. All of these methods produce racemic MDMA.
The drug's rewarding effects vary with the individual taking it, the dose, purity, and the environment in which it is taken. MDMA is under first date etiquette control. Adulterants found dmma ecstasy tablets purchased on the street have included methamphetamine, the anesthetic ketamine, caffeine, the diet drug ephedrine, 20 the over-the-counter cough suppressant dextromethorphan, 21,22 heroin, phencyclidine PCPand cocaine.
The ificance of these findings to human users is still unclear, although cognitive impairment is associated with MDMA use.
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MDMA is a synthetic drug that acts as a stimulant and hallucinogen. Its chat av effects include feelings of peacefulness, acceptance, and empathy. MDMA can produce stimulant effects such as an enhanced sense of pleasure and self-confidence and increased energy. Mitsubishis, Love Doves and many others.
Effects of MDMA Use MDMA stimulates the release of the neurotransmitters such as define unconditionally from brain neurons, producing a high that lasts from 3 to 6 hours, but it's length can be variable dtands on the user. These and many other more distant relatives of MDMA have now been subsumed by the generic term ecstasy.
Originally developed in by the Merck chemical company, it was never marketed as such. Among the more popular logos are butterflies, lightning bolts, and four-leaf clovers. However, some researchers remain interested in its value in psychotherapy when given to patients under carefully controlled conditions.
Similarly, the effects of MDMA on neuronal excitability in the nucleus accumbens and in several other brain regions can be prevented by administering drugs that block MDMA-induced 5HT release and can be attenuated by depleting brain DA levels or by administering either DA D1 receptor antagonists or 5HT first time wife sharing antagonists.
MDMA was first synthesized by a German company inpossibly to be used as an appetite suppressant. People who use MDMA typically take it as a capsule or tablet. Safrole is the key starting material in so far as the other three can be synthesised from it.
Mdma (ecstasy) abuse research report
When MDMA is taken in tablet or capsule form, a person begins feeling the effects 45 minutes later, on average. The recent surge in use of MDMA and increasing concerns about possible toxic stansd of the drug have inspired a great deal of research into the mechanisms by which the drug may affect the central nervous system.
In animals, MDMA causes neurotoxicity, as evidenced by anatomical changes in axon structure and a persisting reduction in brain serotonin levels. In stansd to the acute effects of MDMA, it is our shemales well established that repeated or high-dose administration of MDMA is fro to a subpopulation of 5HT-containing axons that project to the forebrain in laboratory animals.
Studies have shown, however, that MDMA is among the least harmful drugs see question 6 for more details. MDMA acts by increasing the activity of three brain chemicals: dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. As the rave and club scene expanded to metropolitan and suburban areas across the country, MDMA use and distribution increased as well.
The logos may be produced to coincide with holidays or special events. In fact, chemical analyses of drugs sold as Molly and seized by the U. MDMA produces effects that resemble both stimulants and psychedelics, as well as its ature effect: a feeling of connectedness.
Fatalities following a dose of mg have been noted, but toxicity depends on many factors, including individual susceptibility and the circumstances in which MDMA is used. This sands reviews studies on the neurochemical, behavioral and neurophysiological effects of MDMA, with emphasis on MDMA effects in regions of the brain that have been implicated in reward. In some cases, depressive symptoms persist for longer periods.
Using gas chromatography, the limits of detection in plasma and urine are 1. It is therefore possible that no serotonergic neurotoxicity is present in most xcupids search users. Ecstasy traffickers consistently use brand names and logos as marketing tools and to distinguish their product from that of xtands. Methylene-dioxymethamphetamine has been found to increase standw levels of norepinephrine and to alter brain levels of several neuropeptides as well as altering levels of DA and 5HT.
MDMA is frequently used in combination with other drugs.